Hosni Mubarak, former Egyptian President passes away
Hosni Mubarak, former Egyptian President, who was ousted during Arab Spring passed away in Cairo on February 25, 2020. He was 91. Mubarak had ruled Egypt for almost 30 years before his ouster in the pro-democracy movement.
He reportedly passed away at a military hospital in Egypt’s capital. He had undergone a surgery in late January and was reported to have recovered. His son Alaa had shared that he had been in intensive care since then.
During the Arab Spring revolution, Mubarak was found guilty of having a hand in the killings of protesters during the revolution. However, the conviction was later overturned and he was freed in March 2017.
Who is Hosni Mubarak?
• Hosni Mubarak had served as the fourth President of Egypt for 30 years from 1981 till 2011. He was appointed as the Vice President of the nation on October 14, 1981 and eight days later, on October 22, he was sworn in as the President of Egypt after Islamist militants assassinated the ruling President Anwar Sadat during a military parade.
• Before entering Egyptian politics, he had served as a career officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He later served as the commander of the air force from 1972 to 1975 and then became air chief marshal in 1973.
• Mubarak’s term as President saw slow but steady economic growth and he was able to largely keep the nation away from armed conflicts after decades of war with Israel.
• Under Mubarak’s reign, Egypt joined hands with the US to fight against Islamic terrorism. He had also sent troops as a part of the US-led coalition in the 1990-91 Gulf War. He had also made efforts to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
• Mubarak was Egypt’s longest-serving ruler after Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had ruled the nation for 43 years from 1805 to 1848.
Hosni Mubarak’s ouster
Hosni Mubarak had to step down from the President’s post after 18 days of protests across the country, as a part of the Arab Spring Revolution of 2011.
Mubarak resigned as President and Vice President of Egypt on February 11, 2011 and transferred the power to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. His ouster came soon after the people of Tunisia overthrew their longtime ruler Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in the same year.
In April 2011, Mubarak and both of his sons were detained for questioning on allegations of corruption and abuse of power. Mubarak was later arrested and ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to stop the killings of protestors during the 18-day revolt.
The trials began in August 2011 and in June 2012, Mubarak was sentenced to life imprisonment by an Egyptian court. Mubarak suffered a series of health crises after the sentencing.
In January 2013, Egypt’s High Court of appeal overturned Mubarak’s life imprisonment order and directed for a retrial.
During the retrial in May 2015, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on the corruption charges and given prison sentences. Mubarak was later acquitted of all charges by the same court and was released in March 2017.
The Arab Spring was a series of anti-government uprisings and armed rebellions that spread quickly across the Islamic nations in early 2010. The revolutions were against the oppressive regimes in the nations and the low standard of living.
The protests had begun from Tunisia and later it spread to other Islamic nations including Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Bahrain and Syria. The ruling regimes in all these nations were overthrown and major violence was reported.
Protests were also reported from other Islamic nations including Jordan, Oman, Sudan, Algeria, Iraq, Morocco and Kuwait.
The Arab Spring paved way for large-scale conflicts including the Egyptian Crisis, Yemeni Crisis and civil war, Libyan Civil War and the Syrian Civil War. The conflicts have resulted in a major refugee crisis with many people fleeing the conflict zones.